How does antiviral resistance occur?
As a flu virus replicates (i.e., make copies of itself), the genetic makeup may change in a way that results in the virus becoming less susceptible to one or more of the antiviral drugs used to treat or prevent flu.
What is inavir?
Inavir® is a long-acting neuraminidase inhibitor developed by Daiichi Sankyo which is manufactured in Japan. The drug was originally launched in Japan for treatment of influenza A and B in October 2010.
What is the role of neuraminidase during infection of the host?
Neuraminidase cleaves the sialic acid molecule, thereby freeing the virus to infect other cells in the host organism. Antibodies against neuraminidase that are generated by the host’s immune system following infection bind to a portion of the neuraminidase antigen known as an epitope.
How do you test for antiviral resistance?
74 Antiviral resistance is defined as a decrease in susceptibility to an antiviral agent established by in vitro testing (phenotypic testing) and confirmed by genetic analysis of the viral genome (genotypic testing) and biochemical analysis of the altered enzymes.
What causes acyclovir resistance?
Acyclovir resistance has been increasingly described and is caused by mutations in either the thymidine kinase or the DNA polymerase genes.
What does hemagglutinin and neuraminidase do?
Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein, which is responsible for virus attachment, interacts with the fusion protein in a virus type-specific manner to induce efficient membrane fusion.
Can viruses develop resistance?
Like all microorganisms, viruses can develop resistance to the drugs meant to treat them, and not only in clinical situations.
What is a positive use for viruses?
In fact, some viruses have beneficial properties for their hosts in a symbiotic relationship (1), while other natural and laboratory-modified viruses can be used to target and kill cancer cells, to treat a variety of genetic diseases as gene and cell therapy tools, or to serve as vaccines or vaccine delivery agents.