What causes enzootic abortion?
Enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) is caused by Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) abortus and is one of the most common abortifacient microbes in sheep. It occurs in all sheep-producing countries and produces late-term abortion.
How is enzootic abortion spread?
Enzootic Abortion is highly contagious from sheep to sheep. 99% of infection takes place around lambing time with ewes and lambs picking the infection up from aborted lambs, infected cleansings and vaginal discharges (which can last for up to 3 weeks) from ewes which have aborted.
What is ovine enzootic abortion?
Ovine enzootic abortion is caused by an organism called Chlamydophila abortus. The main source of infection is infected sheep shedding at lambing time in birth fluids. This can happen from newly infected sheep or recovered carrier sheep that aborted during a previous pregnancy.
Which of the following ewes is most at risk of pregnancy Toxaemia?
Ewes in over-fat or very poor condition are most at risk. While many factors contribute to body condition, ewes which are in poor body condition at mating are invariably in low condition during late pregnancy and are predisposed to pregnancy toxaemia.
What are the signs of toxoplasmosis in sheep?
Typically, a ewe produces a weak or stillborn lamb two to three days early, often accompanied by a small, mummified foetus. Weakly lambs do not usually survive, as they often have brain damage.
How do you prevent toxemia in sheep?
How can I prevent pregnancy toxaemia? Good nutrition and careful management are the keys to avoiding pregnancy toxaemia. Lambing ewes require feed on offer of more than 1500 kilograms per hectare during lambing. If this is not available, provide a supplementary source of energy, such as good quality hay and grain.
What causes listeriosis in sheep?
Listeriosis is caused by the contamination of feedstuffs by the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, which is widely distributed in nature and is found in soil, feedstuffs and faeces from healthy animals (Wardrope and Macleod, 1983).
What time of day do sheep give birth?
Dusk feeding meant that 34% of calves came between 6:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. Another 21.2% came between 10:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m., and then another 30% arrived between 2:00 p.m. and 6:00 p.m. That left only 15% of the calves being delivered between 6:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m. Of course your results may vary.
What causes pregnancy toxemia?
The principal cause of pregnancy toxemia is low blood sugar (glucose). Onset of the disease is often triggered by one of several types of stress including nutritional or inclement weather. The disease is most prevalent in ewes and does carrying two or more lambs or kids.
How do you abort a sheep?
Control consists of isolating all affected ewes and lambs and treating in-contact ewes with long-acting oxytetracycline or oral tetracycline. C abortus bacterins are available and reduce abortions. In parts of Europe, a modified-live vaccine is available for use. C abortus is zoonotic, but human cases are rare.