What does alkaline phosphatase do to Pnpp?
PNPP (p-Nitrophenyl Phosphate, Disodium Salt) is a widely used substrate for detecting alkaline phosphatase in ELISA applications. When alkaline phosphatase and PNPP are reacted, a yellow water-soluble reaction product is formed. This reaction product absorbs light at 405nm. The substrate is offered in several formats.
What happens when serum alkaline phosphatase is high?
Higher-than-normal levels of ALP in your blood may indicate a health concern with your liver or gallbladder. This could include a blockage in your bile ducts, gallstones, cirrhosis, liver cancer, and some forms of hepatitis.
What is alkaline phosphatase responsible for?
Alkaline phosphatases are widely distributed enzymes (e.g., liver, bile ducts, intestine, bone, kidney, placenta, and leukocytes) that catalyze the release of orthophosphate from ester substrates at an alkaline pH. The normal activity level in adult serum is highly dependent on the measurement method, age, and sex.
What is bacterial alkaline phosphatase?
Bacterial alkaline phosphatase (BAP) from Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a key enzyme used in protein/antibody detection and molecular cloning. As it removes terminal phosphate from DNA, RNA and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, it is used to lower self-ligated vectors’ background.
Is ALP a transferase?
The gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) test may be used to determine the cause of elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Both ALP and GGT are elevated in disease of the bile ducts and in some liver diseases, but only ALP will be elevated in bone disease.
What is the function of phosphatase?
A phosphatase is an enzyme that removes a phosphate group from a protein. Together, these two families of enzymes act to modulate the activities of the proteins in a cell, often in response to external stimuli.
Why is alkaline phosphatase high in pregnancy?
1. Elevation of alkaline phosphatase level according to the gestational age. ALP is an enzyme produced by liver, bones, kidneys, small intestine and placenta. In a pregnant patient, elevation of ALP may be related to HELLP syndrome, intrahepatic cholestasis, malignancy and liver or bone diseases.
What is intestinal alkaline phosphatase?
Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is secreted by enterocytes and is present on the apical surface. It not only detoxifies bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the gut lumen and limits intestinal inflammation but also restricts translocation of LPS into systemic circulation.
What is alkaline phosphatase in E. coli?
Bacterial alkaline phosphatase (E. coli) nonspecifically catalyzes the removal of most phosphomonoester bonds from the 5′ and 3′ termini of DNA and RNA without degrading diphosphate or triphosphate linkages. The enzyme is purified from an E. coli strain that does not harbor RNase activity.