What is the Lipotoxicity?
Failure of packaging of excess lipid into lipid droplets causes chronic elevation of circulating fatty acids, which can reach to toxic levels within non-adipose tissues. Deleterious effects of lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues are known as lipotoxicity.
What is the pathophysiology of NIDDM?
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) results from an imbalance between insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that the earliest detectable abnormality in NIDDM is an impairment in the body’s ability to respond to insulin.
What in medical terms is NIDDM?
Type II (Non-Insulin Dependent) Diabetes (NIDDM)
What is the pathogenesis of dm2?
The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes ordinarily involves the development of insulin resistance associated with compensatory hyperinsulinemia, followed by progressive beta-cell impairment that results in decreasing insulin secretion and hyperglycemia.
What causes lipotoxicity?
Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.
What is Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity?
Intense research has identified a number of genetic variants that may predispose to impaired B-cell function, but such predisposition can be precipitated and worsened by toxic effects of hyperglycaemia (glucotoxicity) and elevated levels of free fatty acids (lipotoxicity).
Does lipotoxicity cause insulin resistance?
Lipotoxicity has roles in insulin resistance and pancreatic beta cell dysfunction. Increased circulating levels of lipids and the metabolic alterations in fatty acid utilization and intracellular signaling, have been related to insulin resistance in muscle and liver.
What is lipotoxicity diabetes?
Lipotoxicity refers the detrimental effects of lipid metabolites on nonadipose tissues, such as liver, skeletal muscle, heart, kidney, and pancreatic β cells . It is a pathologic process seen in many metabolic disorders, most notably obesity and type 2 diabetes .
What is liver lipotoxicity?
Hepatic lipotoxicity occurs when the liver capacity to utilize, store, and export free fatty acids (FFAs) as triglycerides (TGs) is overcome by FFAs flux from the periphery or hepatic de novo lipogenesis .
What is the purpose of first phase insulin release?
In response to a meal, there is a rapid and sizable release of preformed insulin from storage granules within the beta cell. This “first phase” of insulin secretion promotes peripheral utilization of the prandial nutrient load, suppresses hepatic glucose production, and limits postprandial glucose elevation.
What is the role of obesity in the pathophysiology of diabetes type 2?
Obesity, and especially visceral adiposity, escalates the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Excess adipose tissue contributes to a chronic increase in circulating fatty acids reducing the usage of glucose as a source of cellular energy.